We are in circa 4000 BCE. About 6200 years back in time. Far calmer than today. Business as usual though.
We are located in the fertile plains of Mesopotamia (present day Iraq). A way more greener than today. The crystal water from Euphrates and Tigris have transformed the region into an oasis.
The situation in HongKong is worsening lately. Coincidentally, it started when the relations between USA and China turned sour due to trade disagreements. The protests not only tarnished the image of HongKong but also resulted in destruction, arson and casualties. The law and order was on its knees. Even though the bill was withdrawn later, the protests only turned stronger. Perhaps, it had little to do with the extradition treaty.
Timur was born in Transoxiana (present day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336. At an early age, he was crippled while waging a battle with Khan of Sistan in Afghanistan. He therefore acquired names like Timur the lame, Timur Lang or more popularly as Tamerlane.
While having an interesting conversation with a friend, We hit a pertinent question which led to further discussion. Why was human development across the globe not consistent? Why Africa region never saw glory years in its history even though humanity as we know it in our current being (sapiens) started from the same place.
The idea of heaven and hell is pretty much embedded in outlook of social life and has been accepted since time immemorial. I have summarized them civilization wise as below:
Mesopotamian / Sumer civilization (4500 BC):
Mesopotamians believed in netherworld which is equivalent to hell. It was a dark place with no return. However, there were no punishments or torture. It was supposed to be just a place that is dull and mundane. There was no concept of heaven as well. Everyone who dies and have proper burial / funeral will be transported to netherworld. There will be 7 gates to the netherworld and the dead will transition after judgement from court of the Annunaki.
If not for Alauddin Khalji, the total population of Indian subcontinent would 1/10 nth of the current.
Khilji dynasty founded by Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji ruled large parts of Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320 AD. Alauddin Khalji ascended the throne of Delhi in 1296 AD after the death of his uncle. He had exemplary experience in administrative field. He had served as Governor of Kara and Oudh during his predecessor’s rule.
He used to look like below and not like the ripped version of Khal Drogo as depicted in the movie.
Jerusalem is considered to be the holiest city by all 3 Abrahamic faith namely Christianity, Islam & Judaism.
In last few days, it has again come into limelight after US president, Donald Trump declared it as a capital city of Israel which got criticism and condemnation from several countries and massive protest by Palestinians who also regard it as their capital.
The bone of contention is a rock which in on top of a natural hill (mount Moriah for christians, mount Marwah for muslims & mount Moriyya for jews).
The word “mughal” is a persian translation of the word “mongol” which also explains its origin.
Mughal empire was a prominent empire that controlled vast parts of present day India and Pakistan for nearly 300 years (1526 – 1857). In the 12th – 15nth century, Pakistan and northern India was under the clutches of Delhi Sultanate. The first sultan of Delhi, Qutb ud Din Albak rose to power under the Mamluk dynasty after Muhammad of Ghor was assassinated. He had no children so Ghurid Empire was dissolved and power was split under various generals of the empire.
The battle of Guadalete in the year 711, 712 let to the inception of Islamic conquest in Hispania when the Visigoths were defeated by the army of muslim berbers & arabs.
During the times of Umayyad caliphate, Islam was widespread and had entered into Europe through Spain. Abd Ar Rahman I was the first Emir of Cordoba followed by Abd Ar Rahman II.
In the 6th century, the middle east did not have any uniformity in terms of religious following. Most had idol, pegan beliefs.
Prophet Mohammed started preaching Islam across several regions of middle east. Islam as a religion had all ingredients to attract vast following. There was wide spread discrimination during the middle ages in terms of skin colour, in terms of class, in terms of demographics, social status & many other types of segregation.
Genghis Khan was born as Temujin on August 18, 1227.
His father died when he was merely 9 years old as a result of poisoning by rival tribe.
Timujin married Borte when she was just 17 in order to expand his tribal support. However, rival tribe attacked his tribe resulting in him running away to save his life. His wife was kidnapped by the rival tribe.
Greeks around 657 BCE founded Byzantium. It was significant because of its strategic location that connected it to east and also in terms of defence. it could only be attacked from the west as rest sides were covered with sea.
Because if its prominent location and fertile land, it was marred with wars in the early times. It was a centre of Persian wars between Greeks and Persians. Persians were hell bent on conquering Greece and city kept changing hands between Persians and Greeks. It was later conquered by Spartans who made peace with Persians (Persian king Xerxes) and provided their full support to Persians in exchange of letting them govern Byzantium.
Julius Caesar was the most prominent leader of roman republic. He was born on July 13, 100 BCE. His parents were believed to be decedents of roman goddess, Venus.
Though respected his parents did not have much money. Caesar’s father died when he was 16 and same year he married Cornelia who also belonged to noble family and her father supported Caesar’s uncle, Maurius to come to power. Unfortunately, his opponent Sulla came to power.
After earth was formed, it was too hot to host any form of life. It cooled off over millions of years.
The gas clouds consisting of hydrogen and water vapor began to settle.
Throughout history we have witnessed the existence of far more superior species on the face of the earth. Dinosaurs, Mammoth & Megalodon are to name a few.
All these are no more with us but an inferior species like homo sapiens survived through this entire period of evolution.