In recent years, It has been concluded based on statistics that more people die by committing suicide than wars or natural disasters. As civilized society, we somehow did overcome medieval period of deplorable bloodshed but we found ourselves in another sinister adversity.
The adversity of depression is not natural phenomenon per se. Isn’t it strange that depression has seen this huge growth only in recent times? Technology is a two edge sword. It can help in instant communication but at the same time create anxiety in its absence. It has raised our expectations vis-a-vis with people.
The idea of heaven and hell is pretty much embedded in outlook of social life and has been accepted since time immemorial. I have summarized them civilization wise as below:
Mesopotamian / Sumer civilization (4500 BC):
Mesopotamians believed in netherworld which is equivalent to hell. It was a dark place with no return. However, there were no punishments or torture. It was supposed to be just a place that is dull and mundane. There was no concept of heaven as well. Everyone who dies and have proper burial / funeral will be transported to netherworld. There will be 7 gates to the netherworld and the dead will transition after judgement from court of the Annunaki.